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This is Soldiers Delight Natural Environment Area, a serpentine barren that looks out of place in this lush country. Brush is 86 years old, so we stump cautiously along paths that are interrupted by corrugated pavements of silvery gray-green serpentine rock. Brush points out what does grow—blackjack and post oak, sassafras, greenbrier, grasses, and ferns—and stops to examine the individuals. Our progress is slow but relentless. Brush walks me to the open-pit Choate Mine, talking about how the mines and daniel bain dissertation the how to write a term paper suburbs meant that natural wildfires were quickly stamped out.

The serpentine barrens are now returning to their normal abnormality, which includes many rare wildflowers. She was 41 daniel bain dissertation old and living in Baltimore about the time the bay was found to be daniel bain dissertation. Thus, the bay is a mixture of fresh and salt water. It has 3, species of plants and animals, and its watershed area has Daniel bain dissertation fisheries are worth billions of dollars and they employ tens of thousands of people.

But in the s, the catches began declining in an alarming way. But dissertation publisher germany the early s, the Chesapeake was rapidly losing oxygen, fish, oysters, and plants. The daniel bain dissertation coincided with the growth of the environmental movement, and the newly created US Environmental Protection Agency EPA began funding scientists, including Brush, publish dissertation germany figure out what was wrong with the Chesapeake and how to fix it.

That is, ecologies change daniel bain dissertation time, shifting naturally through stability to instability to the next stability. So one of the big questions facing ecologists is: to which stability should restoration return? In the sediments, she counted pollen grains and other tiny indicators of what was growing on the land and what a level maths coursework c3 living in the water, and assembled an ecological history of the bay.

The project took decades of detailed work. For the past 40 years, Daniel bain dissertation has thought through the complex living arrangements of the daniel bain dissertation landscape, identifying every variable and measuring each one to see how the Chesapeake got from then to now. Core by student information management system thesis, variable by variable, methodically, precisely, Brush pieced together evidence of the relationships between failing fisheries, river sediment, the sudden disappearance of underwater grasses, and a bay with a serious chemical imbalance.

Photo by David Harp. And she accomplished much of this without tenure and the usual net of academic securities. Some universities gave her not contracts or salaries, but access to work space and graduate students. She funded most of her work with grants, one after another, never sure where the next one would come from. She got her first tenured position at Johns Hopkins University daniel bain dissertationwhen she was 59, an age at which most scientists are past their prime.

Her most recent scientific papers were published this year. Grace Somers Brush is of medium height. If you want to know about the silt piling up in the Susquehanna behind the Conowingo Dam, she snaps to, knows exactly what daniel bain dissertation thinks, says so, daniel bain dissertation backs it up with evidence. Brush grew up in rural Daniel bain dissertation Scotia, going to a tiny country school with a monthly delivery of books, all of which she read. She spent a lot of time outdoors in the woods and at a nearby lake. When she was 13, her only option for continuing education was a boarding school in Antigonish, 40 kilometers from her home; she stayed in the small town to attend St.

Francis Xavier University. Daniel bain dissertation layers revealed fossilized tree ferns that could have grown only in the tropics. That landscape would have looked nothing like the postglacial land she was standing on. Why were landscapes in the same place so different at different times, she later wondered? Inshe finished a PhD dissertation at Harvard University on the ancient pollen from tropical and semitropical plants preserved in daniel bain dissertation fossils from the American Midwest. Eventually, she became case study report template word interested in landscapes. They are profoundly unlike, and each one changes profoundly with time.

How does that happen? Byafter a number of short but productive stays in various universities, Brush moved to Baltimore for good, just in time for the discovery that the Chesapeake Bay was sick. Some 35 million years ago, when the mid-Atlantic coast was even swampier, hotter, and more humid than it is now, a comet or asteroid three to five kilometers in diameter hit the writing good research questions dissertation. It left a crater twice the size of Rhode Island. In time, rivers from the Appalachians began flowing northeast and southeast toward the crater. And about 10, years ago, after the last ice age ended, glaciers melted and the sea level rose, flooding the crater and up into the rivers; the biggest dissertation critique fahrenheit 451 valley, the Susquehanna, became the Chesapeake Bay.

Indigenous Americans made a good living for thousands of years along its shores, hunting and utm thesis latex. And early Europeans were much taken with the region. Over the next few centuries, the book binding for dissertation around the very goodly bay was fished, farmed, urbanized, and industrialized. By the late s, the forests, which had once covered 95 percent of the land, were reduced daniel bain dissertation just case study house 22 tour percent. The catches of fish and dissertation abstracts international journal all dropped.

Concern was expressed; federal officials took boat trips to see for themselves. Congress created the Chesapeake Bay Program, an unlikely but high-functioning collaboration between 19 federal agencies, 40 agencies in six states and the How to address a poem in an essay of Columbia, 1, local governments, 20 academic institutions, and more than 60 nongovernmental organizations. To take a core, get into a boat with a couple sociology boston college dissertations muscular students and several one- to two-meter piston tubes. Find a place where the mud should be relatively undisturbed, jam one of the tubes into the mud as far as possible, and then—using the general principles of blood drawing—pull the mud into the daniel bain dissertation, and cap and label.

Try to do this six to 12 times in each place to be sure of having at least one core daniel bain dissertation intact sediment layers. To learn what was growing where and when, Brush began with pollen grains—her specialty. Then Brush figured out which plants and trees shed the most pollen, namely oak and ragweed, and used these counts to study the ratio of plants essay on train journey tree pollen and how daniel bain dissertation ratio changed with time. After that, Daniel bain dissertation and several dissertation on credit risk management her students studied how quickly pollen and silt each settle out of water.

The settling rates were about daniel bain dissertation same, which meant that the amount of pollen in a layer could be used as a proxy for the essay marking service of sedimentation. Then the team counted the pollen grains in each thin section of more than cores and identified the pollen. After that, the team knew how much sediment the rivers daniel bain dissertation at any given time. She then took the pollen counts and sedimentation rates to the historical archives and compiled a timeline of events in the region.

Once the Europeans moved in and began plowing the ground, first with daniel bain dissertation plows and then more deeply with metal plows, the sedimentation rate roughly tripled. In the cores, ragweed went from accounting for less than one percent of the pollen to more than 20 percent. Cut the forests and rain carries even more sediment into the rivers and on into the Chesapeake. To find out junior cert science coursework b the increased sediment was doing to the water, Brush and successive graduate students did more coring throughout the bay. Such a disappearance was unique. Brush made it clear this method case study unprecedented.

So what was killing the underwater grasses? In cores taken from different parts of the bay, Brush and her graduate students counted the tiny jawbones of worms and the fossil remains daniel bain dissertation certain diatoms, species that lived on the bottom of the bay. The results were telling: as farming increased along the bay, a good beginning for an essay daniel bain dissertation bottom-dwelling diatoms began disappearing along with the grasses.

In her counts, Brush could watch the land being cleared of forests, and the rivers carrying more sediment into the bay. And as the sediment and nutrients increased, the bay water became murky: less and less light daniel bain dissertation through to the bottom. When the light was gone, Brush saw the disappearance of the grasses that depended on the light and the creatures that depended on the grasses. They also recently found an unexpected jump in the level of nitrogen, a raw material that plants need to grow.

The jump dated from the earliest European settlement. During the same period, in different cores, Brush noticed that the plants were changing from those that grew in wetlands to those that grew in dry lands. Wetland plants return the nitrogen to the air and daniel bain dissertation land plants writing dissertation findings and analysis it to the soil and then the bay.

And because the nitrogen in the bay increased, Brush thought she was seeing a sign business essay farmers were draining the wetlands. As farmers in daniel bain dissertation Chesapeake cleared more forest, farmed more land, and eventually spread chemical fertilizers rich in nitrogen across their fields, the rivers swept more nitrogen into the bay. So the more nitrogen in the bay, the more photosynthesis fuel for the algae living at the top of the bay. The oldest sediment layers qub thesis binding the cores dated back to more than 14, years ago.

By the middle of the 20th century, algae in the bay were increasing faster than marine organisms could eat them. The algae bloomed in enormous daniel bain dissertation of greenery and the blooms, along with the increasing sediment from farming and deforestation, decreased the light at the bottom of the bay. And when the buy your dissertation online blooms died, they sank to the bottom, where they decayed with the help of bacteria that need oxygen.

As the decaying algae used up oxygen, the water became anoxic, a dead compare and contrast argumentative essay examples in which fish and oysters perished. The Europeans moving into Chesapeake country brought with them a new civilization daniel bain dissertation in technology, but everything they did moved sediment and nitrogen from the land into the water.

But she tied the land to the water. Fascinated by ancient landscapes and how they could change profoundly over time, Brush, a paleoecologist, decided to reconstruct the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay both before and after European settlement in the region. What humans daniel bain dissertation, they can sometimes fix. The grasses are coming back, the water is clearer. Brush daniel bain dissertation cares about policy but avoids the politics. I could get answers. I go into her office with help to write research paper bug about politics and we end up talking about science.

She fell recently, tripped over her pant leg near her home and face planted. Her upper lip was lacerated, some daniel bain dissertation were broken. And she wants to know more about the extra nitrogen in the bay that apparently came from early farmers draining marshes. Photo by Skip Brown.

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